( Part 3 )
Let´s now continue and return to the subject of the distributionn of “ medals of honor “ to some capitalist states and cursing at others at these conference that began .
In next year´s climate index , published by two institutions (Germanwatch and New Climmate) Norway , Sweden and Britain top to the list of countries with good environmental policies , respectively !! We have to see how this really is . Sweden, meanwhile , according to the country´s nature conservation organization , annually as much as the total carbon dioxide produced by the counntry´s small and private cars (about 5 millionn private cars) the same amount of carbon dioxide is emitted from areas where forest trees are cut down by capital owners in this realm , sends to earth´s atmosphere and in addition , large amounts of methane gas are emitted from these areas . This is about 13% of the country´s total annual carbon dioxide emissions . Furthermore , Sweden annually exports large quantities of Peat ( also known as Turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter . It´s unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires and moors or muskegs. The peatland ecosystem covers 3.7 million square kilometers “ 1.4 million square miles” and is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture carbon dioxide “CO2” naturally released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium ) to neighboring countries such as Finland and Norway and other European countries . Despite the fact that new peat formation occurs much faster than fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas , but in many areas it has large amounts of stored carbon . In a time perspective of up to several hundred years, studies show that the emission of greenhouse gases from peat is consistent with the release of fossil gases. Thus, peat combustion, unlike other fossil fuels emits pure carbon dioxide. Peat classification differs between Sweden´s power generation system, the EU carbon dioxide emissions trading system and international climate negotiations at the United Nations. Peat is classified as a fossil fuel by both Sweden and the UN Climate Panel, but according to the law in Sweden it does iclude the renewable energy sources. According to the Swedish Energy Agency, peat coal falls into the “other fuels” class which is exempt from energy and carbon taxes. The annual energy percentages of Sweden, Finland and Ireland are the highest in the world. Finland is 7%, Ireland 5% and Sweden 0.7% , but let´s not forget that Sweden supplies a lot of the peat needed by Finland, Norway and the Netherland. Between 2019 and 2020, Sweden´s cultivated peat yield increased by 19.7% from 1.6 to 1.9 million cubic meters. This is the highest value measured for cultivated peat since the start of measurement. There´s an increase in demand, especially abroad, where exports of cultivated peat have increased by 13% over the same period. While Sweden has no other source of fossil fuels but the energy and forestry industries are experiencing high labor productivity growth, with the country´s share of social capital gains above the global average. The use of various pesticides in forstry has a long history. Before the Swedish forestry sector entered a large phase of advanced industrial use and exploitation in this field, that´s around the last decades of 1800, the workers of these companies with saws and axes in groups of several hundred people went to cut the huge trees of the forests, because the capitalists of this pre-capitalist field knew very well that large and old trees contained high-quality fibers for carpentry, wooden construction and pulp production and so on.
Simultaneously with the first automobiles appeared that were also to increase labor productivity to a high degree in difficult areas. During the second imperial war, the need for European capital for wood, coal and its products increased astronomically . It was here that mass production of forest products was the solution and the forest itself had obstacles to develop the technique of cutting down trees, transporting them to factories and even planting new sprouts. One of these obstacles was the uncontrolled and uninterrupted growth of deciduous plants, shrubs and all plants that didn´t have any consumption for capital in the manner of capitalist forestry. The first thing that catches the attention about today´s mass forests is the word of pesticide, controversial herbicides and phenoxy acides against leafy plants or insecticide such D.D.T against insects . However, the use of pesticides began earlier in the late 1940s and was intended not in a completely different way but in another areas of capital investment. It should be noted that large-scale use only came about when large-scale forestry companies in Norland (northern Sweden) began serious reconstruction work to remove vegetation with chlorate solution in the early 1950s and further experiments were performed on other biocides. Continuous trials were conducted elsewhere in Sweden over the next few years with satisfactory results from the point of view of the capital institutes of agriculture and forestry . In early 1944, efforts were made to prevent the formation of stumps in birch with a variety of chemicals such as sodium chlorate and sodium pentachlorophenol which all of them are very dangerous to humans and animals. 1948´s experiments with hormonal derivatives such as (Tetraklordibenso-p-dioxin- TCDD – 2,3,7,8 ) and ( methy-4-chlorophenxyacetic acid “MCPA” ) and (polychlorinated biphenyl “PCB” ), then began primarily phenoxy acids. Since the early 1950s, they´ve been used successfully to control weeds in agriculture and so, with the silence of the mass workers , capital in this realm took a more aggressive step against nature . The advantage of hormonal derivatives is that they´re selective , that is , different derivatives affect different species . the derivatives of dioxins are growth hormone , this means that it does attack the short plant when it´s exposed to hormonal derivatives and dies . Or others, specifically targeting deciduous trees, not pines , and drying them out . The strongest phenoxy acids were selected , and this trend continued until 1977, when most of the forests exploited in this areas of capital investment and became mainly pine forests . Need to control deciduous plant (types of birch trees,corner tree , the scientific name of the Tuscan family, beech and oak. Most birch species are small or medium-sized trees with short lifespan and are native to the temperate and subpolar parts of the Northern hemisphere), the main axis of this field was for capital investment . This is how the organization of forest owners and companies describes this period in its historiography “the labor force used to uproot and cut down trees and shrubs was enormous and its high cost wasn´t affordable for forestry . Demand for this cheaper solution to the problem of so-called forest rejuvenation led to aerial spray experiments which took place in 1950 near Kramfors in Sweden. The experiment was performed with three different preparations at three different concentrations from the helicopter and the result was beyond expectations. Aircraft spraying experiments began the following year, and the good results continued”. The large forestry companies have now begun to take a serious interest in this type of control of deciduous trees and so-called “weeds” and the reaction of the people didn´t took long in coming and the masses gave titles such as “birch murder in Dalarna”, “flight causes hormonal death” to that . The mass protest against the clearing of forests of deciduous plants gradually grew and led to the accumulation of large masses in forested areas above Sweden. Environmental activists , along with the masses from Torsby, Falun and Gavle, among others strongly opposed aerial spraying. They followed the spraying plan from the ground and during the reconnaissance, they maintained radio calls and found airports and camouflaged runways in the jungle and in protest in 1976 they chained themselves to trees there. The government officials and forestry companies unanimously said it was profitable and not dangerous. Torsby Environmental Protection Group took on this task and became the leader of the modern environmental movement. The mass of Torsby mostly the workers generally began collecting testimonies from locals to “report cancer”. 25 full pages written about how to live in the vicinity of sprayed areas and work with poison. There´s evidence of dead animals and people becoming ill and the hatred for using such a method increased. When the time for environmental days in Tursby commes in June 1977 the mass labor movement for the environment along with some writers, theater actors and what in Sweden known as cultural workers from Stockholm and Uppsala, under the slogan “save the forest” began to grow and experienced successful days. This was the culmination of workers´ movement agaist the catastrophes by capital against the environment, and the situation was similar across Europe in a few years. However, these protests never turned into a socio-class movement, and the working masses of Sweden, nor any other country entered the process of struggle against capital and its catastrophes. Nowhere in the hell of capitalism the workers didn´t stop the process of producing profit and accumulation of capital and its state for reason of environment and their future of their children. On the sidelines of the Glasgow Conference , the youth of working class families of then thousands of masses staged protests in Glasgow, London and paris and also other European cities. But nowhere did this turn into a mass labor movement against the foundation of environmental catastrophes and capitalism and as Greta Tonburg on friday, November 12 (the last official day of the 26th cop) that called it a two-week festival for business as usual !! in practice as in the past, the capitalists and their governments with their respective institutes were the stage-makers and planners. Capitalism once again sent a message to the mass workers of the world that it´s capital which determines the fate of everything about today and tomorrow´s destiny of human being, not only destroying the environment but also planning and excuting all these in following and it will be so as long as the workers leave their lives and the fate of work and production to capital and its decisive approach. Sweden has been using new pesticides in a different way for almost two decades now because most of the forests are depleted of deciduous plant and are made of pines and they´re very tangled and the only way to cut down trees and carry timbers is to cut down a lot of trees. Productivity in this area of capital´s investment has been greatly enhanced by capital in Sweden and the capital giants in this field use such techniques in the forest-rich countries of the world to cultivate and harvest as much surplus value as possible. The combine harvesters use in this field are similar to those used in industrial cultivation but they´re much more advanced and there´re various capabilities in the same that not only cut the tress but peel, cut timber and load on trailers with threee times porter, rather , today a new generation of these combines have entered the field of productiont that in addition to above tasks, they have eight arms and all four arms on either side groove the ground and next they plant seedlings and ferilize too. In this way, they benefit from a very small amount of workforce with a very high productivity .
Jan. 2th 2022